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Holocaust timeline

Before the Holocaust: 1933-1941
The Holocaust: 1941-1945
Aftermath: 1945-
Links: Other timelines

Before the Holocaust: 1933-1941


30 January Adolf Hitler becomes German Reich Chancellor.
4 March The first concentration camp is established in Dachau, near Munich. Political opponents of the new regime make up the first inmates.
1 April The Nazis initiate a national boycott of Jewish shops and businesses.
7 April Jews in public jobs are dismissed, including schoolteachers and university professors.
10 May Books written by Jewish authors and opponents of the regime are burned in public.
14 July Legislation is adopted, which allows for forced sterilisation of gypsies, handicapped, afro-Germans and others considered ‘below the level of the Aryan race’.


July Control of the concentration camps is taken over by the SS.
2 August Hitler proclaims himself Fuehrer of the Third Reich following the death of Reich President von Hindenburg.


May Signs saying ‘Jews not allowed’ are posted outside German villages and outside restaurants and shops.
15 September The Nuremberg Laws rid the Jews of their basic civil rights.


12 July German gypsies are arrested and sent to the Dachau concentration camp. The concentration camp of Sachsenhausen is established.
1-16 August The Olympic Games are held in Berlin. Anti-Semitic signs have been removed in advance. Germany fields one Jewish athlete, Helene Mayer.
15 October ‘Non-Aryan’ teachers are prohibited from teaching in public schools.


16 July The concentration camp of Buchenwald is established.
16 November Jews can only leave Germany under special circumstances.


13 March The Anschluss - Germany occupies Austria.
April Jews are gradually excluded from the financial sector.
15 June ‘Operation Anti-social’: Jews with a criminal record are sent to concentration camps.
6-15 July Unsuccessful conference in Evian about the international society’s reception of Jewish refugees from Germany. Most of the 32 participating countries refuse to receive Jews from Germany.
23 July The German government orders that Jews carry identity papers at all times.
17 August All Jews have to take a certain middle name: ‘Israel’ for men and ‘Sarah’ for women.
October All Jews have their passport stamped with a red ‘J’.
7 November A young German Jew, Herschel Grünzpan, tries to assasinate a German diplomat in Paris.
9-10 November The Night of Broken Glass: Centrally directed pogrom against the Jews, their synagogues, shops and private homes. 7,500 Jewish shops are vandalised or looted. 30,000 Jews are arrested and placed in concentration camps. 90 Jews die.
12 November The German Jews are ordered to pay a compensation of 1 billion Reichsmark – for the damage done to the Jews themselves.
December Jewish driver’s licenses are deemed invalid, Jews are forced to sell their businesses, and Jews are no longer allowed to study at the universities.


January All Jewish organisations are abolished by law. Jews are prohibited from working in the health sector.
15 March Germany invades and occupies Czechoslovakia.
1 September Germany invades Poland. World War II is a reality.
2 September The concentration camp of Stutthof is established.
21 September Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Security Police, orders that all Jews in Poland and Czechoslovakia must be gathered in ghettos.
October Hitler authorises the Euthanasia Programme (Operation T4) – the mercy killings of physically and mentally disabled Germans.
23 November All Polish Jews have to wear a yellow Star of David on their chest or a blue and white armband.
28 November The first ghetto is established in Piotrekow in Poland.
December All Jewish males in Poland between the age of 14 and 60 are conscripted for forced labour.
1 December All Jews in Czechoslovakia are forced to wear the Star of David.


Spring Germany invades Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and France.
May More than 160,000 Polish Jews are confined to the ghetto in Lodz.
20 May The concentration camp of Auschwitz is established in German-controlled Poland.
2 October The Warsaw ghetto is established.
November Approximately 500,000 Polish Jews are confined to the ghetto in Warsaw.


1 March Heinrich Himmler orders a large-scale expansion of Auschwitz following a personal inspection tour.
22 March Germany sends troops to Northern Africa.
6 April Germany invades Greece and Yugoslavia.

The Holocaust: 1941-1945


22 June Germany begins its war of extermination against the Soviet Union. Mass executions of Jews and communists. So-called Einsatzgruppen from the SS are responsible for most of the killings, together with local collaborators.
31 July Reinhard Heydrich receives authorisation to begin the implementation of the Endlösung – the ‘Final Solution of the Jewish Question’.
1 September German Jews are forced to wear the Star of David.
October Deportations of German Jews to eastern Poland.
8 October The construction of Birkenau is begun at Auschwitz – a killing centre where Jews are to be gassed to death.
7 December Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, USA.
8 December Mass killings of Jews with the use of exhaust fumes are initiated in the extermination camp Chelmno.
11 December Nazi Germany declares war on the United States.


January Jews from the ghetto in Lodz are sent to Chelmno and gassed to death.
20 January The Wannsee conference takes place, where the guidelines for the implementation of the Final Solution are established under the direction of Reinhard Heydrich.
17 March The killing of Jews in gas chambers is begun at the extermination camp Belzec.
March-October Hundreds of thousands of Jews are sent from ghettos in Poland and Czechoslovakia to the extermination camps at Chelmno, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Auschwitz-Birkenau and Majdanek, and gassed to death.
1. juni Jews in France and the Netherlands are forced to wear the Star of David.
22 July The Treblinka extermination camp is established.
August The Majdanek concentration camp begins to work as an extermination camp, as does Auschwitz. There are now six extermination camps running in Poland.


January Germany is defeated at Stalingrad.
March German gypsies and gypsies from German-occupied countries are sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau, to the so-called ‘gypsy camp’.
June All ghettos in Poland and the Soviet Union are to be emptied out and destroyed.
2 August Desperate Jews revolt in Treblinka - most are subsequently executed. The gassings seize.
October Approximately 7,500 Danish Jews escape to Sweden, only a few are captured by the Nazis.
14 October The prisoners in Sobibor revolt. A few manage to escape. The camp is subsequently closed.


March Germany invades its former ally, Hungary.
May- 440,000 Hungarian Jews are deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau and gassed to death. A total of 550,000 Hungarian Jews perish.
6 June D-Day: Allied forces invade Normandy.
24 July Majdanek, a combined forced labour-, concentration- and extermination camp, is liberated by Soviet troops.
1 August The ‘gypsy camp’ in Auschwitz-Birkenau is liquidated. All 6,000 gypsies are gassed to death.
September The ghetto in Lodz is liquidated – almost 70,000 Jews are sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau. Jews from Theresienstadt are also sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau – excluding Danish Jews.
7 October Prison revolt in Auschwitz. One of the crematoria is blown up.
26 October The Nazis order that all crematoria and gas chambers be blown up. All traces of their horrible crime are to disappear.


17 January The Nazis evacuate Auschwitz and send the prisoners marching to Germany, to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
27 January The Red Army liberates Auschwitz.
April The concentration camps at Dachau, Bergen-Belsen and Buchenwald are liberated by troops from the United States.
5 May The concentration camp Mauthausen is liberated by American troops.
7 May Germany surrenders.

Aftermath: 1945 -


November The legal process against Nazi war criminals is begun in Nuremberg. 22 top Nazis, military commanders and party functionaries are accused of crimes against peace, crimes against humanity and war crimes. In 1946 22 are convicted – 12 of them are sentenced to death.


11 March The British arrest the former commandant of Auschwitz, Rudolf Höss. He is convicted at a tribunal in Warsaw and a year later hanged in Auschwitz.
9 December 23 former SS-doctors and scientists are accused at the Military Tribunal in Nuremberg. 16 are found guilty – 7 of them are hanged.


15 September 21 leading men from the Einsatzgruppen stand accused at the Military Tribunal in Nuremberg. 14 of them are sentenced to death, but only 4 are actually executed.


11 May Adolf Eichmann is captured in Argentina by the Israeli intelligence service.


11 April -
14 August
The Eichmann Trial in Jerusalem: Eichmann is accused of crimes against the Jewish people, crimes against humanity and of war crimes. He is found guilty and sentenced to death. Eichmann is hanged 31 May 1962.
1960's Trials against the camp personnel from the extermination camps.

Links: Other timelines

> www.historyplace.com - external link

A very thorough and informative timeline. Frequent links to detailed sections on the various events.

> "ShoaNet - Holocaust Chronologie - (1933-1945)" - external link

Good German language timeline.

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